8–10 baby turnips, trimmed, or 2–3 regular turnips, cut into 3cm/1½in chunks
1 tbsp caster sugar
Put the oxtail in a bowl. Add 1 tablespoon of the spices and a pinch of salt and pepper and rub them into the meat.
Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a large heavy-based casserole and sear the oxtail in batches, turning it to make sure it browns on all sides. Transfer the oxtail to a plate and set aside.
Heat the rest of the oil in the same pan and fry the onions, Swiss chard stalks and celery over a medium heat. Season with salt and pepper, add the rest of the spice mix and cook for 10 minutes, until the onions are soft. Add the garlic and cook for 3 minutes. Add the roughly chopped herbs and celery leaves and half the Swiss chard greens.
Turn the heat up, return the oxtail to the pan and cook, stirring occasionally, for 10 minutes, or until the greens have lost their liquid. Add the stock and pomegranate molasses and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat to very low, add the dried limes, cover and cook for 5 hours. Alternatively, transfer to a lidded ovenproof dish and cook in a preheated oven at 140C/120C Fan/Gas 1.
Remove the lid, strain off 150ml/5fl oz of the cooking liquid and set aside. Add the barley to the pot and simmer for another hour with the lid off, stirring occasionally.
For the baby turnips, blanch the turnips in a large saucepan of boiling water for 3 minutes then drain well. Heat half the butter in a large frying pan and add the sugar and turnips. Once the sugar has dissolved, add the reserved oxtail cooking liquid and boil until almost all the liquid has reduced and the turnips have coloured. Add the rest of the butter and shake the pan until the turnips are nicely glazed all over. Season to taste with salt and pepper and set aside.
By now the oxtail stew liquid should have reduced by more than half. If not, simmer for a further 30 minutes. When it is thick and concentrated, add the butter, lemon juice, finely chopped herbs and remaining Swiss chard and check the seasoning.
To serve, divide the stew between serving plates or place the pan in the middle of the table and top with the glazed turnips.